# Explain in layman’s terms

Linear regression: Derive a trend line to best fit the data that can minimize the sum of squares of prediction error. (distance of each data point to the fitted line is prediction error) P-value: Specifically, if the null hypothesis is correct, what is the probability of obtaining an effect at least as large as the […]

# Causal Inference Analysis

https://cdn1.sph.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/1268/2019/02/hernanrobins_v1.10.38.pdf Basic identity of causal inference we can decompose the observed outcome of a treatment into two effects: Outcome for treated − Outcome for untreated = [Outcome for treated − Outcome for treated if not treated] + [Outcome for treated if not treated − Outcome for untreated] =Impact of treatment on treated +selection bias. The […]

# Categorizing Listing Photos at Airbnb

https://medium.com/airbnb-engineering/categorizing-listing-photos-at-airbnb-f9483f3ab7e3 Large-scale deep learning models are changing the way we think about images of homes on our platform. Authors: Shijing Yao, Qiang Zhu, Phillippe Siclait Airbnb is a marketplace featuring millions of homes. Travelers around the world search on the platform and discover the best homes for their trips. Aside from location and price, listing photos […]

Big data is data sets that are so voluminous and complex that traditional data-processing application software are inadequate to deal with them. Big data challenges include capturing data, data storage, data analysis, search, sharing, transfer, visualization, querying, updating, information privacy and data source. To understand the phenomenon that is big data, it is often described using five Vs: Volume, Velocity, Variety, Veracity and Value Volume refers to the vast amounts of […]

Simpson’s paradox for quantitative data: a positive trend ( blue line and red line  ) appears for two separate groups, whereas a negative trend (dotted line) appears when the groups are combined. Simpson’s paradox, or the Yule–Simpson effect, is a phenomenon in probability and statistics, in which a trend appears in several different groups of data but disappears or reverses […]

# Experimentation Key Steps

Within webpages, nearly every element can be changed for a split test. Marketers and web developers may try testing: Visual elements: pictures, videos, and colors Text: headlines, calls to action, and descriptions Layout: arrangement and size of buttons, menus, and forms Visitor flow: how a website user gets from point A to B Some […]

# Comparing Performance of 6 Classification Models

In the example below 6 different algorithms are compared: Logistic Regression Linear Discriminant Analysis K-Nearest Neighbors Classification and Regression Trees Naive Bayes Support Vector Machines # Python Code # Compare Algorithms import pandas import matplotlib.pyplot as plt from sklearn import model_selection from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier from sklearn.neighbors import KNeighborsClassifier from sklearn.discriminant_analysis […]

Gradient descent is an optimization algorithm used to minimize some function by iteratively moving in the direction of steepest descent as defined by the negative of the gradient. In machine learning, we use gradient descent to update the parameters of our model. Parameters refer to coefficients in Linear Regression and weights in neural networks. Learning rate The size of these steps […]